Vietnam agriculture: A sneak peak through 20 years of development
manual vietnam agriculture

A sneak peek at Vietnam agriculture

As an Asian country, Vietnam agriculture is the backbone of Vietnam’s main development strategy lollies. Hence, rice is also the main meal of the Vietnamese. It’s the main source of raw materials for processing industries and major contributor to exports. Besides, do you know anything else about this industry?

Vietnam agriculture has achieved remarkable developments in the past 20 years

After the war in 1975, Vietnam agriculture production has varied a lot year to year. People recorded a particularly strong performance in the 1990s. As a result, in the second decade of the 21st century, Vietnam has achieved its first international achievements.

Vietnam is one of the richest agriculture regions on earth and is the second-largest worldwide rice exporter, as well as the seventh-largest consumer of rice. Furthermore, thanks to the Vietnamese government’s efforts to expand irrigation, research, and extension areas, there has been a major increase in local and national rice production.

vietnam agriculture products export

Exporting Vietnam agriculture’s products – Image:

Wet-rice is the most important crop

According to the latest statistics, the current wet-rice land area is 7.8 million hectares, occupancy for 52.5% of the total cultivated land area. Permanent cultivation covers large areas of the country’s lowlands and smaller portions of the highlands. The main agricultural areas are the Hong River Delta in the North and Mekong River Delta in the South.

The Central coastal land has low productivity due to destructive typhoons. Besides, other major food crops are sugarcane, manioc, corn, potatoes, and nuts. Moreover, tropical fruits such as banana, coconut, and citrus trees are mostly found in Mekong delta. Meanwhile, coffee, tea, and rubber are grown in the central highlands thanks to the lower temperatures and high rainfall.

rice is the most important crop of vietnam agriculture

Vietnam agriculture is the main industry so that Vietnamese people raise rice on the mountain – Image:

Vietnam agriculture faces many challenges

Firstly, Vietnam’s agricultural products are good, but they are only food in quantity, not quality, which leads to low competitiveness. Though the government aims to invest in agriculture, the Vietnamese farmers are still very backward. Though Vietnam agriculture is highly labor-intensive, much plowing is still done by water buffalo.

Additionally, the market taste fluctuates unpredictably and the demand forecast doesn’t work well. As a result, in some regions, agricultural products are stagnant, price falls affecting the whole industry.

buffalo in vietnam agriculture

Buffalo is still the main “machine” of Vietnam agriculture – Image: Thomas Schoch.

Moreover, innovation and development in production organizations are still slow. Small-scale household factors still account for a high proportion and have been an obstacle to the industrialization and modernization. Large-scale production with a closed process from purchasing raw material to managing output markets has not been mainstream yet.


Vietnam agriculture is now restructuring to apply technology in the producing process. With the previous achievements and efforts to overcome difficulties, Vietnam is trying their best to be one of the major agriculture in the region.